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Instrument PTS Changes as of 10-01-04
---Use of emergency procedures using all electronic systems
---Emergency procedures using only backup or standby instruments
---Non-precision approach with backup instruments
---Proficiency in autopilot, flight management or IFR GPS
---Show aeronautical decision-making skills re: weather and performance planning.
---Show single pilot resource management skills.
---http://av-info.faa.gov (PTS at FAA-S-8081-4D)

Applicant Requirements
--An instrument applicant must have 50 hours of cross-country time meeting the 50 mile distance requirement.
--Instrument currency is determined by having six approaches, holding procedures and the interception and tracking of courses in the last six months.

IFR Oral
Study for your IFR oral and written at the same time by having copies of all the publications listed as information sources in the PTS handbook. There are about twenty specific areas of knowledge that need to be studied separately. I would list them in difficulty as follows:
--IFR flight procedures
--Flight planning
--Airport operations
--Aircraft instruments
--Aircraft systems
--ATC facilities
--Charts and plates
--Aircraft parameters

Aspects of the Oral
Examiners may approach the oral either by checking on the information that you are supposed to know, or by finding out how much you know. The ideal is the examiner who covers all that you are supposed to know and tells you that you have passed the oral. THEN, he asks you even more questions that are not common knowledge and proceeds to expand your knowledge horizon. If there is no clear division between the two sets of questions look out. Stick with what you know to be right, simple, basic, and safe.

When given an open ended question that has more than one possible answer, select what you feel to be the safest procedure to follow. At the end of your answer include the possibility of other answers being available but you have selected the one you feel most comfortable with. Watch out for hypothetical questions. Ask the examiner to show you the situation on a plate so that the application is specific.

Part of your oral exam preparation is being able to draw all the system diagrams, know how the instruments work, know by heart the emergency procedures, and what every switch on the aircraft controls. After you have mastered, or think you have mastered, the complexities of the aircraft wait a week and see if you can still draw the diagrams and answer the questions. If you don’t know, say so. Do not guess at an answer. Don’t take the test until you are sure you will pass.

Clearances and the PTS
Knows clearance division of responsibilities and kinds.
--Copies as issued
--Determines compliance
--Interprets, gets clarification, verification and changes.
--Reads back as issued
--Standard phraseology
--Sets frequencies and codes.

A pilot must understand that the entire clearance system of checks and counter-checks is installed to minimize mistakes. The basis for all instruction related to clearances is the FARs of 61 and 91, the AIM, and AC 61-27. DPs and STARs, and IFR plates and charts give further written and diagrams of what makes a clearance.

Questions and Answers
New written test questions about convective outlook and high-level significant weather prognosis charts.
1. What is required of an IFR static system?
2. What is required of an IFR altimeter?
3. What instruments and equipment are required for IFR flight?
4. What IFR malfunction reports are required?
5. After making a full report a malfunction, what additional is required?
6. What is the easiest out from an IFR communications failure?
7. What route will be followed if communications failure occurs in IMC?
8. What altitude will be flown following communications failure in IFR conditions?
9. Under conditions of communications failure how do you determine when to arrive at your destination airport?
10. What are the required reports under IFR?
11. Only under what conditions can an IFR flight deviate from the center line of an Federal airway?
12. How are IFR flight altitudes in controlled airspace determined?
13. How are IFR altitudes determined in uncontrolled airspace? What is the exception?

1. The Static system must be checked and certified every 2 years in log books as meeting Part 43 IFR requirements 91.411

2. Altimeter must be certified IFR accurate within 75 feet up to maximum operating altitude. Altimeter must be sensitive. (Kollsman adjustment) 91.411,& 91.205 d

3. IFR flight requires all of VFR day (Make your own mnemonic) plus VFR night requires collision and position lights, electrical source, spare fuses. In addition IFR requires 2-way radio, rate-of-bank, ball, sensitive altimeter, clock, generator, attitude indicator, heading indicator. DME above 24,000 91.205. The VSI is not required.

4. Malfunction during IFR requires reporting any of the navigation, approach or communications given in . 91.187.

5. After reporting a malfunction the pilot must advice of the assistance desired from ATC. 91.187

6. The easiest out from IFR radio failure is …If VFR continue and land ASAP. 91.185 b

7. Routes to be flown after radio failure are …as assigned, expected, filed. 91.185 1

8. Altitudes to be flown after radio failure are…highest for route segments as assigned, Minimum charted, advised or expected.

9. After radio failure you must calculate the times of your IFR clearances or EFCs to meet your ETA as filed/amended.

10. Required reports are from the FARs and the AIM. The IFR pilot is required to report designated points unless under ATC radar. When under radar as requested by ATC. Unforecast weather and safety of flight factors. 91.183

11. Under VFR conditions for clearing flight path in climb and descent. Also with ATC approval.

12. Altitudes are flown as assigned by ATC with the VFR conditions on-top exception. 91.179

13. Altitudes are determined in uncontrolled airspace by the magnetic course and hemispheric rule. Even thousands westerly below 18,000, and odd thousands easterly up to Flight Level 29. Above FL 29 4000' foot spread. Exception is in holding patterns. 91.179

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