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An abbreviation of the Practical Test Standards. Some omissions have occurred. Refer to FAA-S-8081-4A


Instrument Flying Instruction Book
H.G. Stark, 1931
"Many pilots think they can fly by sense of balance, but this is not so…With instruction and practice, this danger can be eliminated to a great extent, and it will many times avoid the necessity of using the parachute, …" 

Ten Required Logbook Entries for Instrument Rating
Date and Time must be entered for all endorsements
Required Aeronautical Knowledge FAR 61.65
Crew/cockpit resource management
FARs applicable to IFR operations
AIM applicable to IFR operations
ATC system and operations for IFR
IFR navigation and approaches
IFR en route and IA charts
Getting and using weather information
Safe and efficient use of aircraft in IFR conditions
Recognition of critical conditions, wind shear avoidance
Good judgment and decision making

(Append to logbook on separate sheet)
Student_______________#________________Instructor_____________# ___________

Here is the new IFR endorsement, per AC 61.65D:
I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of § 61.65(c) and (d). I have determined he/she is prepared for the Instrument Airplane practical test.

S/S [date] J. J. Jones 987654321CFI Exp. 12-31-00

Required Flight Proficiency
Preflight preparation
Preflight procedures
ATC clearances and procedures
Flight by reference to instruments
Navigations systems
Instrument approach procedures
Emergency operations
Post flight procedures

New Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards
FAA-S-8081-4B $2.50
--Get, study, and make performance cards from POH. Make note of special system procedures such as vacuum backup, gear, and emergency.
--Review procedures for getting weather, NOTAMs, and different methods of filing flight plans.
--You should be familiar with pop-up, tower en-route, void-time, and pre-filed procedures. You cannot maintain proficiency by only flying 6 and 6.

Once learned, procedures are best practiced in an airplane. Non-precision approaches which require circle-to-land require special attention. There are several altitude 'busts' possible and you must be able to maneuver close to the airport for landing.

Each objective in the PTS is given in four parts. There is a certain amount of (1)knowledge required, a (2)recommended scan technique, a (3)performance standard, and (4)partial panel performance. Straight-and-level requires heading within 10 degrees, altitude within 100' and airspeed within 10 knots. For an instructor to sign off a student as competent these parameters should be cut in half.

FAR 61.45 requires applicant to bring an airplane in which all required tasks can be demonstrated.

Reference on how to do a particular maneuver required by the PTS can be located in the PTS below the task required section in each area of operation. The PTS provides a reference list of required documents, materials, aircraft and instruction. Confirm by reference to the PTS that you are being trained to meet all of the tasks and objectives listed in the PTS.

IFR Endorsements
One of the logbook endorsements that the FAA requires the recommending instructor (CFII) to sign is:
"I certify that (First name, MI, Last name) has received the required training of § 61.65(c) and (d). I have determined he/she is prepared for the Instrument - (Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-lift) practical test."

61.65(d)(2)(iii) states:
For an instrument -- airplane rating, instrument training on cross-country flight procedures specific to airplanes that includes at least one cross-country flight in an airplane that is performed under IFR, and consists of -
(A) A distance of at least 250 nautical miles along airways or ATC-directed routing;
(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and
(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of navigation systems;

Reason for PTS Checkride Failure
1. Inability to perform DME arc approaches. If DME exist in aircraft, DME arc must be performed.
2. Partial panel approaches. Use partial panel approaches from beginning of instruction.
3. Aircraft Systems must be understood as required by PTS.
4. Orientation and situational awareness due to lack of experience.
5. Radio failure procedures. Memorization won't work.
6. Fly practice IFR flights as VFR with radio failure simulations that require use of procedures.

REFERENCES: FAR Part 61; AC 00-6 and AC 00-45; and AIM
1, Able to obtain, read, and interpret weather information
2, Weather related to this flight

REFERENCES: FAR Parts 61 and 91; AC 61-27; and AIM
l. Plan flight within regulations and flight rules.
2, Know aircraft performance and handbook calculations as required for this IFR flight
3. IFR chart selection and interpretation
4. Selection and interpretation of NOTAMS
5. Knows aircraft capability and handbook calculations (FAA pays by the word. Much the same as #3)
6. Files and flies flight as planned.
7. Use of DUATS

REFERENCES: FAR Part 61; and AC 61-27
Objective. Knowledge of aircraft systems and operation of:
1. Airframe
2. Propeller/intakes
3. Fuel system
4. pitot-static

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