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Standardized Controlled IFR Flying
It is not possible to substitute IFR simulation for the experience of actual IFR conditions. Only actual conditions can give you the turbulence, precipitation, wind shear and lighting changes that can cause vertigo. Compounding these conditions will be ATC speed-talk, demands, clearances, inquiries, and requests for readback. Worst of all will be that the controllers who have concocted the clearance are not talking the language of the controllers who direct traffic.

I admit to a weakness in my IFR instruction in that in simulated IFR, I seldom make a full-stop landing. In actual conditions a high percentage of approaches result in full-stop landings. The transition from instrument to visual references in minimum visual conditions gets far too little practice. I intend to make a higher percentage of full stop landings and published missed approaches in the future. Training must include hours of actual and opportunities for the student to make real pilot in command decisions.

The purpose of IFR training is to produce a pilot who has sufficient skills and competence to fly IFR safely during the refining period of retaining proficiency and actual application of the training. This training rests of several basic but mandatory maneuvers. The IFR pilot must have automatic control of the aircraft through coordinated turns, stalls and patterns. The fundamental skills of IFR are straight level flight, turns, airspeed climbs and descents, a light or hands-off yoke touch, and throttle movement.

A weakness in any of these areas will compound any procedure problems. Early mastery of these basics will reduce training time in the long run. If you can't fly using the gauges without thinking about it, you won't have the ability to think about all the other things involved in navigation and communication.

Control instruments
Attitude Indicator and Power (Tachometer or manifold)
Primary instruments are always the ones with the numbers. For straight and level it is the altimeter for pitch, the heading indicator for bank and the tachometer for power. When an airspeed is assigned then the ias is primary for power as the throttle is adjusted to maintain airspeed. Ability to maintain heading and altitude over a distance is a basic requirement.

The proficient pilot knows by sound the present power setting and airspeed. He knows how much change is required to go to another performance situation. He knows by both feel and sound the change made. Then he confirms by looking at the control instruments. I have found that most pilots tend to over-control when using power. I recommend that you make the power change and then take half of it off, immediately. Put in 2" manifold and then back off 1". Seems to work. I have seen an ILS flown beautifully using just power adjustments, trim and rudder. I 'electrified' the yoke so it could not be used. Any procedure you use must work in the worst case situation.

Performance instruments
--Airspeed indicator
--Turn coordinator
--Directional gyro
--Vertical speed indicator

1. Know your power settings and aircraft configurations.
2. Performance instruments are your means of determining the effect of control input.
--Airspeed is set with power.
--Reset your HI and set approach configuration before descending.
--Descent is initiated by power reduction. Know the reference descent rate and bracket it with power changes.
3. All turns related to flying are pre-selected on the HI but entering and stopping the turn is with the AI.
--Minor corrections can be done with the rudder.
--Power, Power Changes and Trim

Once you have mastered the power, power change and trim required for two climb speeds, two descent speeds, and at least two level speeds, using only the AI, you are ready go on to...

Redirect the aircraft:
1. Set power and AI (attitude), trim as required
2. The trend of movement is shown on the turn coordinator and the VSI.
3. Check trend. If unacceptable redo the AI. Check the numbers information. FAA Primary instruments have numbers on them. They allow you to fine tune your performance.
4. Fine trim for hands off. This must be done without error or hesitation. If a problem exists practice aircraft
control basics.
5. Look for meaningful information. Set the AI, check the trend then read the numbers

You can practice constant headings first by constant airspeed and them by constant altitude. The variables are made through power changes from full to idle. This requires great attention to the rudder, elevator and throttle coordination. For constant airspeed the hands move in opposite directions to get pitch and power. Initiate the climb until stabilized then set up the descent. Repeat until you can anticipate the coordination required to keep constant airspeed.

Level cruise
--A constant altitude with power and pitch to obtain cruise speed.
--Power for airspeed
--At desired speed, lean for economy
--Frequent full power flight is good for engine
--Set AI, check TC and VSI for trend
--Fine tune: Alt for pitch, HI for bank, Tach for power
--At level cruise the altimeter is primary pitch.

Airspeed, AI, altimeter and VSI are affected by elevator and throttle. Any change in power only results in change in airspeed or altitude. Check altitude before adjusting airspeed by power. Changes in straight and level airspeeds require adjustment of pitch, power, and (bank) rudder.

Approach cruise
--Fine tune: Speed at top of white arc, Vfe
--Reduced airspeed that may be best endurance
--1/2 bar high on AI
--Set AI, check TC and VSI for trend
--Alt for pitch, HI for bank, power for airspeed.

Level to Climbing Turn
(As in a missed approach)
1. -- Airspeed for pitch, TC for bank, Tach for power
2. --AI set, then power (full), airspeed and turn coordinator (TC)
3. --Check trend. If unacceptable redo #1.
If acceptable go to #2 & #3.
4. --Check the numbers information
Bank information is AI/TC or HI for constant heading (wings level)
Pitch information is airspeed/power, altimeter, or VSI
Power information is tachometer or airspeed

The turn requires that the altimeter be used for pitch and the turn coordinator for bank. Tachometer is primary for power. As before, required airspeed is controlled by power adjustments. The TC should be calibrated by doing timed turns. The rate of turn is based on airspeed and angle of bank. Turn rate decreases with reduced angle of bank and an increase of airspeed. Standard rate turns can be figured by using 10% of your ias and adding five. Limit your angle of bank to the angle of small heading changes. Use five degrees of bank for five degrees of turn. Use the standard 1/2 angle lead in rolling out to a heading.

Steep Turn
Altimeter for pitch,
-- Attitude Indicator for bank,
--Tach for power
--Lock the AI center dot

Cruise Descent
--No flaps since G-load is set lower
--Speed limited by ATC, Vne, Vno, or Va
--One bar low on HI for 500 fpm descent
--VSI for pitch, HI/TC for bank, airspeed POH
...Lock the AI in pitch.

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