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Basics Come before Approaches
Several different methods of presentation are used here. Some aircraft lack DME or ADF and even dual radios so the presentation must be different. For some flights there are as many as 200 different procedures that must be sequenced.

If you are having difficulty flying an altitude or a heading, doing an approach is an exercise in futility. You must be thinking ahead of each intersection. You must preset your ATIS for your destination and get it before contacting your destination approach control. Write down the frequencies in their anticipated sequence. Concentrate your communications on only
one radio.

One way to prepare is to make an intersection by intersection tablet to help you both anticipate and prepare ahead of the aircraft where possible. Experienced pilots may enjoy finding errors in the presentations. Rehearse the radio work where you must tell ATC your intentions from the first approach until your departure. Get it right the first time.

Even off-airway you should set up intersecting airways to keep track of your progress and be prepared at all times to give ETAs as may be requested by ATC. It happens. to make the process easier work out two speeds that you intend to use for cruise and approach. Make a time/distance chart for each.

Airspeed Control Lesson (VFR)
This begins with a climb to 2700 msl over terrain slightly below 2000 msl. This gives us up to 5700 agl in which to practice our airspeed control. From level cruise we fly a specified aircraft heading and at a specified time we see how long it takes us to establish a hands-off level low cruise speed of 90 knots. We do this several times going to level crusie and then to low cruise. Each time we are trying to improve our time of transition. We are taping everything we do so that we can index the required time, trim, attitude, and power setting. We are working intensively to make the transition as efficient as possible while holding heading.

Our next transition is to transition from level cruise to a Vy climb which requires that we set the attitude, full power and trim for Vy (7nots for C-172) land then level off at level cruise hands-off. This requires careful judgment of leading the leveling off, power reduction, power setting and trim while holding heading. Proper use of rudder pressure is essential. This exercise could be repeated in 1000 foot steps three times before executing an emergency descent down to 2700.

The next series of climbs should be done at 90 knots with level flight also done at 90 knots. The same sequence of adjustments are required but to a slightly different degree. This series of steps could be done in 500 foot increments so more changes can be made in the same period of time.

The final series of steps could consist of everything being done at 90 knots with one step up, one minute level and one step down. This to be followed by two steps up and two level segments followed by two steps down with two level segments. These exercises are very intense and could be broken up by some VOR radial tracking. The steps and segments could be given additional challenge by timing with the clock or tracking a radial. I use a step-down localizer to show the practical application of this required skill.

Tracking From/to VORs with Intersections and COPs Lesson
This lesson begins by going over the route and intersections as they exist on a chart. The second step is to sit in the cockpit and go through the sequence of VOR OBS settings, frequencies and idents as required for the route. This means discussion about where the OBS needle will be, anticipation of the next frequency and OBS setting while keeping aware of where you are and remaining on track. The important of the change-over-point as where you must change frequency from VOR to VOR and the OBS change required when you reverse your track. There is a very useful follow up of these two lessons if weather conditions will allow them to be accomplished in actual conditions. I have always found ATC very cooperative in allowing block altitudes and direct routes. One problem is that their computer requires for you to name a destination airport. You can amend your destination or ask for a repeat of the route before proceeding to your destination.

Tower en route CCR to APC
Two approaches will be made. The first approach will be VFR if conditions permit.

Cessna one four zero seven uniform is cleared to Napa airport via Buchanan seven departure, Skaggs transition, direct. Climb and maintain three thousand (later amended to four thousand). Departure will be one one niner point niner. Squawk four five three one. Advise this frequency when ready.

First all headings
Runway to 600'...
...direct to CCR VOR (360 + 10 degrees)...
--281 degrees; to SGD VOR...
--230 degrees; till past SEAPO..
--185 degrees; Procedure outbound.
--005 degrees; Procedure inbound...Required report
050-degrees inbound to SGD VOR and airport...FAF required report missed approach left turn (wide) to SGD VOR for direct holding entry left turns. The wide circle direct to VOR on about a 200-degree heading will allow a direct entry. A tight turn will necessitate a parallel outbound.
--347 degrees; outbound...
--167 degrees; inbound

Second All Altitudes
At 500' ...
--climbing direct to CCR VOR
--direct to SGD VOR
--level and maintaining 3(4)000.
--When cleared for approach out bound from SGD at 2900..
--2600 inbound to SGD...
--1700 at SEAPO...
--420 direct Rwy 6 or
--620 circling at SGD

Third All Radios
Clearance118.75 ATIS 124.7
Preset frequences:
CCR 117.0/350 SGD112.1/101APC ATIS 124.05
119.7 takeoff

APC Twr 118.7 117.0/281 OAK116.8/347
Halfway to SGD at CCR VOR Travis Appch APC ATIS 124.05
119.9 112.1/281 116.2/351OAK Center 127.8 112.1/230SGD VORSEAPO 112.1/050

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