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IFR Lessons
FR training has three levels of maneuver performance. Basic consists of unusual attitude initiation and recovery, hood stalls, and constant-rate climbs and descents usually at 500 fpm and 90-knots. Basic IFR training can begin by doing the vertical-S. Pitch in both climb and descent is done by reference to the VSI. Speed is set by power while using the ASI. HI for heading and turns, when used, set using the turn coordinator.

When any aspect is not to standard, adjustments must be made in both power and pitch. One cannot be changed without affecting the other. If the vertical-S is being made at both constant rate and airspeed the power adjustments must be more positive.

Vertical S is used to dramatize the need for rapid and accurate instrument interpretation upon which must be based smooth accurate application of power and pitch change. You initiate the climb with power and pitch changed together. The descent is attained by a similar reduction of power and pitch. More difficult changes such as leveling off during a turning climb require high levels of coordination and anticipation.

Dirty Trick: While doing unusual attitudes and the student has eyes closed, reposition the attitude indicator.

IFR stalls are not nearly as difficult as one might suppose. I have found that once stalls are performed using the gauges, this becomes the preferred method of doing them. Doing them under partial panel conditions adds a bit of spice.

Recovery from unusual attitudes are expected to be made from both full and partial panel conditions. There are several ways to induce vertigo. One way is to enter a steep turn as slowly as possible. During the turn have the student close his eyes. Just as the maximum bank is reached have the student reach down and pick something off the floor and remain there. After the performance of at least one complete turn, the student is told to make repeated quick turns of the head.

Now the student is told to recover. Initial action is to correct the airspeed situation as determined both by sound and indication. Then by reference to the attitude indicator determine the nose attitude and set aircraft to wings level flight. Partial panel may require reference to turn coordinator and VSI. Turn coordinator is not useable in a spin,

Lesson 1.1 
Begin by showing the student how to set and read the attitude indicator (AI). Make a lesson by covering all flight instruments and have the student perform mixed climbs, level, descents, airspeed changes and even timed turns. Expect the pilot to be able to maintain reasonable control using just the AI.

Lesson 1.2 
Now it is time to box the attitude indicator. Full power is used in climbs, low cruise in level , and idle in descent. In the C-172, I would want the student to perform all maneuvers at 90 knots. In the process he is to learn the power settings, the trim settings and AI attitudes required. This maneuvers are initially performed VFR using attitude, power and trim. Next cover all the instruments except the AI. This is an elevator-throttle-rudder exercise that will require simultaneous changes of power and attitude..

Lesson 1.3 
Once reasonable proficiency in lesson 1 and 2 has been acquired perform the same routines over time until at least one minute hands off capability is attained in each phase. Again it might bre best to do this VFR first and then AI only. Again these maneuvers will require simultaneous changes of power and attitude

Lesson 1.4 
Now we do turns to headings a bit differently. We do the turns using the AI and heading indicator. We are trying to get the scan to the HI down to zero. Instructor will cover HI during rollout. TC and VSI are scanned after AI is level.

Lesson 1.5 
Lesson five is learning to read and hold the AI for best angle and best rate climbs while using full power and appropriate trim for hands off flight. Expectation that heading will be constant is a given. At some point a cruise climb will be practiced using full power. A constant airspeed climb is acquired when the VSI is steady.

Lesson 1.6 
Slow cruise has a 1/2 bar AI setting. This is the speed normally used for approach and holding. Endurance speed just below the upper end of the white arc will be used for holding. Practice until this configuration comes easily with known power, trim and AI attitude.

Lesson 1.7 
Learn the power, speed, configuration and trim required to achieve a constant 500 fpm rate of low cruise descent. use power to keep C.H. effective.

Lesson 1.8 - Airspeed 
We will begin by climbing at Vy which in the C-172 is given as a range between 70 and 80 kts. For IFR purposes there is no such range. An exact speed is selected such as 75 kts for Vy. Since ATC must be informed any time a climb of 500 fpm cannot be maintained we may not be able to climb at 90 kts. The desirability of a 90 kt climb is that it is ;a more efficient cruise climb speed and give better cooling in hot weather.

Go from level cruise to slow cruise of 90 kts and back again to level cruise. Do until the trim and power requirements for a quick transition are again reasonably achieved. Next from a 90 kt level cruise initiate a 90 kt descent for 1000' and back to a 90 kts level cruise. Again, once smooth transitions are being made reduce the altitude range to 500' steps.

I begin being critical when headings exceed 10 degrees, altitudes off by over 100' and airspeeds over 5 kts off. As the lessons proceed these parameters will be reduced. I make an effort for the student to anticipate the attitude, power, and control changes needed for each transition. Every pitch up and power increase must be accompanied by anticipatory right rudder pressure. I will insert into this lesson the effect of acceleration and deceleration on the compass reading according to ANDS.

I give about one hour total time of this lesson but about 3 tenths are used in departure/arrival and visual performance prior to use of hood. I encourage my students to practice this and all exercises with each other by trading off as safety pilot. The tape recordings can be reviewed to make a written record of mistake type frequency. Typical listing will be mistakes of heading, altitude, and power settings.

At the end of the lesson the next lesson is described as being based on Pattern A (Refer to back of Instrument Training Handbook) and use of the ADF. Students are asked to memorize Pattern A with the initial heading of North. Instructor will point out that all North headings are at cruise speed and all South headings at low cruise. The 45 degree ticks on the heading indicator give the headings required for the procedure turns. Refer to end of this section for history on Pattern A and B.

Perform with variations of partial panel.

Lesson 2 - Vertical S 
At an altitude over hills but within 3000' of the ground we will select a heading and proceed with a series of vertical S's. From the 90 kt climb level off and go the level cruise; transition to an airspeed climb of 90 kts for 1000' and again level off to level cruise. Repeat as required. When the transition from climb to cruise on heading is reasonably accomplished add the next step.

Pitch power and trim utilizing the vertical S maneuver. Perform the maneuver in each of the six configurations of flight in bold print. Climb, cruise, cruise descent, approach, approach descent and non-precision descent.

Descending 360 while losing 1000' First to left and then holding altitude in a 360 and finally a 360 to right while descending 1000' Consists of three 360s and a loss of 2000'. Standards are within 10 seconds for reaching all altitudes and headings. Altitudes within 100' and airspeed within 10 knots. When power is the variable the power controls vertical speed and pitch (trim) controls airspeed.

The vertical-S can be done as a constant airspeed maneuver, as a constant vertical speed maneuver or as a maneuver with both of them constant. Regardless of which performance criteria used it requires control of both throttle and pitch to get the performance sought.

For the student who can do all three of the above with a constant heading, the instructor should present another constant called angle of bank. Perform the maneuvers while turning during climbs and descents.
So that 180 turns occur during every 500' of climb or descent. Tain't easy.

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