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PH Chapter Four
References to Diagrams or Figures are found only in IPH textbook.


---Arrival begins before the descent from the en route phase
---Arrival planning gives you the time you need to fly the airplane and handle the unexpected
--- What separates a great pilot from the ordinary is the way the unexpected is handled.

---Pilots must understand and follow the ATC arrival procedures
---Arrivals consist of transition en route to approaches by Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs)
---Arrival has an approach gate or initial approach fix (IAF), visual approach, STARs and vectors.
---Vectors outside of controlled airspace are only at pilot's request
---When on RNAV plan you do your own navigation

---Pilot must plan arrival to approach gate that requires both loss of altitude and airspeed
---Airliners have Flight Management Systems (FMS) that give Top of Descent (TOD) speeds required
---The approach gate is used by ATC to vector to the final approach course one mile before the FAF
---The Final Approach Fix (FAF) is no closer than five NM from the landing threshold (Not always)
---A stabilized arrival and approach requires control of airspeed and rate of descent

---Prior to flight calculate the fuel, time and distance required to descent from cruise to approach gate
---You need to know cruise altitude, approach fix altitude, descent ground speed and descent rate
---Jets use 3 to 1 formula for descent planning see bottom of first column Page 4-2 if interested
---As an IFR pilot you should compute your fuel for time, distance and fuel required for descents
---Stabilized descent requires set power, minimum control change and constant descent path
---Make some practice examples for your aircraft and likely airport situations and record them

---Being cleared for approach allows you to legally descend to charted altitudes after advising ATC
---While MEA and MOCA are alike, radio at MOCA is good for only 22 NM from facility
---Use area charts as soon as possible

---Without radar maintain transition-specific altitudes as though MEAs until next segment

---A course reversal can be a procedure turn or a holding pattern
---Report when inbound on procedure turn or holding pattern
---when being vectored remain at last assigned altitude you can ask for lower but slow-up first
---It is difficult to lose altitude and slow-up at the same time
---Minimum Safe Altitudes are for emergency only
---To be established means to be stable on route, segment, altitude, heading, etc.
---Internationally established means within half full scale deflection of needle or within five degrees
---ATC descends you to glide slope intercept altitude before clearing you for approach, but not always

---ATC usually gives you vectors to the approach unless you request the full procedure early on
---Vectors for a visual approach is the only exception for not 2NM outside the approach gate
---Ceiling over 500' above Minimum Vectoring Altitude (MVA) and 3 NM (visibility usually (SM)
---Inside the gate if by pilot request
---For ILS at altitude not above glide path or below minimum intercept altitude
---For non-precision approaches vector altitude must allow published procedure
---If vector is to cross approach course ATC must inform pilot
---Even if not informed, pilot must not turn inbound without a clearance
ATC Arrival Instructions
---Position relative to a fix on the final approach course, airport or facility
---Vector to intercept approach if required
---Approach clearance unless doing a radar approach, clearance only if on published route
---Some IAPs hve on initial segment are require vectors
----When ATC vectors beyond published segment altitude to maintain is given
---ATC assigned altitudes assure obstacle clearances, but how little may surprise you
Clearances (See Figure 4-10)
---Seven miles from X-RAY….Cleared ILS runway three six approach
---Four miles from LIMA…Turn right heading three four zero….Maintain two thousand until established on the localizer…Cleared ILS runway three six approach…
---Five miles from Alpha…Turn right heading three three zero…Cross ALPHA at or above four thousand…Cleared ILS runway three six approach…
---Eight miles from ALPHACross ALPHA at or above four thousand…Cleared ILS runway three six approach
---Three miles from ALPHA,,, Turn left heading two one zero…Maintain four thousand until established on the localizer…Cleared ILS runway one eight approach
(See Figure 4-11)
Three miles from final approach fix…Turn left heading zero one zero …Maintain two thousand until established on the localizer…Cleared ILS runway three six approach…I will advise when over the fix
---Over final approach fix…Contact tower one one eight point nine
Develop your own shorthand method of writing each of the clearances. After you have finished all of the clearances, try readback each clearance and compare your readback to the original. Now go back and see if you can make your shorthand even shorter. Consider learning to write without looking down using lapboard with notches for lines under the paper.
RNAV terminal arrival (Figure 4-12)
---Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) is T shaped with a straight in area, right base area and left base area
---ATC tells you which of the three is appropriate for you present position and issues the clearance
---Always maintain the last assigned altitude until on a published approach segment
---#1 Seven miles from CENTR… Cleared RNAV runway one eight approach
---#2 Fifteen miles from LEFTT …Cleared RNASV runway one eight approach
---#3Four miles from WRITE …Cleared RNAV runway one eight approach

---ATC wants to keep them as high as possible as long as possible

---Obey all ATC directives concerning airspeed (indicated)
---You must advise ATC if you cannot maintain assigned airspeed
---You are expected to maintain +10 knots of assigned speed, otherwise advise ATC
---If you cannot reach 160 knots you should advise ATC
---On descending through 10,000 feet you do not advise ATC that you slowed below 250 knots
---Below Class B and in airport airspace maximum speed is 200 knots
---Approach clearances cancel any previous speed assignments
---High performance aircraft usually enter terminal area from above 10000 feet 30 to 40 NM out
---Descent below 5000 is confined to the descent area (See Figure 4-13)
---Descent areas exist for straight-in approaches and may be used for non-instrument runways
---Once committed ATC will not allow you to change runways
---Altitude restrictions are not used below 5000 feet for separation purposes
---More than one descent area can be used for different runways for both ATC and pilots

---9000 jet deaths due to controlled flight into terrain with 7.2% during descent
---Situational Awareness is accurate awareness of factors and conditions affecting safety of flight
---Most often CFIT happens in IFR, night or a combination
---ATC is not ALWAYS responsible for terrain clearance
---A pilot who accepts an off-airways clearance also accepts obstacle clearance responsibility
---Pilot should know highest terrain and obstacles in flight area (Figure 4-14)

---FARs 121.542 and 135.100 rules requiring the sterile cockpit concept during critical phase of flight
---No crew member or captain shall permit activity that will distract crew from performance of duty
---Critical phases of flight include all ground operations of taxi, takeoff, landings and flight below 10K

---Most demanding is non-radar separation of aircraft
---ATC lacks independent way to separate traffic and must depend entirely on flight crew information
This means the author of this part has never heard of ADS-B and datalink.
---Required Navigational Performance (RNP) varies by area, facility and aircraft equipment
---In early 2005 the en route lateral distance non-radar is 8NM and with radar 3NM aircraft to aircraft
This means the author of this part has never heard of ADS-B and datalink.
---The FARs require than aircraft navigate as accurately as required by ATC (FAR 91.123)
---Two major categories of air navigation exist: Class I uses navaids and Class I I is everything else

---The STAR gives altitude, route, and speed to be flown by pilot and expected by ATC
---The STAR is both a graphic and textual way of simplifying the required understanding by all
---The STAR starts at the end of the en route structure and ends at a fix or NAVAID picked by ATC

---Stars allow several routes to a common navaid intersection or fix
---A STAR clearance cuts the necessary verbiage by nearly 3/2ds
---A STAR is on one page, covers wide performance differences, uses VORTACS avoids arcs
---A start includes crossing altitudes and airspeed restrictions usually ATC assigned
---STAR usually named from where procedure begins such as the last fix of en route transition
---Every modification of a procedure changes the number in the name of the procedure
---Routes between fixes give course, distances, minimum altitudes and maybe airspeed restrictions
---You may need DME to use a STAR as well as RADAR

---May be part of STAR to keep jets high as long as possible
---Knowing expected altitude in STAR makes it easier to set up for it

---ATC can assign you a STAR but you must have at least textual description of procedure to accept
---You must file "No STAR" and refuse verbal STARs if you don't textual form
---ATC has a way to make you sorry if you don't use a STAR

---Minimum crossing altitudes and airspeed restrictions of the STAR are not yours until given by ATC
---A STAR is not a clearance
---Get ATIS and AWOS as soon as possible
---ATC will advise what approach to expect out of the STAR, look for the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)

---Plan the expected approach early
---Do the prelanding items early

---You will be given altitudes or of how to determine altitudes by STAR by ATC
---Do not leave assigned altitude unless cleared to do so
---Once ATC has you leave a charted procedure all other parts of the procedure are voided
---Be sure to confirm local altimeter settings during descent
---The standard climbing altimeter altitude setting occurs as low as 5000' in other countries

---Expect to have flyby waypoints which means you can cut the corner when changing direction
---RNAV DPs use same RNP equipment/training requirements /E. /F, /G (Figure 4-26)

---Eighteen U.S. airports are especially dangerous due to terrain and/or weather
---Ontario, CA is one because of terrain and smog (FAA calls it haze)


Continued on Page Approaches

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