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Only FAR 91 operations can depart regardless of visibility and get a "look-see" privilege on approaches. Someone operating under FAR Part 91 can legally takeoff from an airport but not have the landing minimums needed to return and land at the same airport after takeoff. Not a good 'go' choice. Under FAR Part 91 you can legally takeoff when a commercial/airline operator would be grounded. Yeah, takeoff but can you get back?

Since there are no Part 91 departure standards, prudence would dictate:
--No departure be made if an arrival is not possible.
--Compliance with a published IFR procedure or with a DP is not mandatory unless it is included in the clearance.
--If no IAP is published, what will be the safest way to go?
--Is an alternate obstruction clearance route available?
--Will visual clearances be possible? Know the terrain, the minimum climb rates compared with your aircraft capability.
--I will do zero-zero departures (hooded student) for training under VFR conditions.

Departure obstacles are based on a 152' per mile slope from 35' above the departure end of the runway. As a standard, procedure designers assume that the aircraft will cross the end of the runway by at least 35' above the ground and will then climb at least 200 feet per nautical mile. The aircraft is expected to climb to 400' AGL before turning. If an obstacle penetrates this slope the airport will have a non-standard takeoff minimums. (Small T in black triangle) and greater performance will be required. If a climb of more than 200 fpnm is required on the plate to a certain altitude, a climb of 200 fp/nm will suffice after that altitude.

If marginal conditions exist, you must check takeoff and alternate minimums. The standard minimums apply only if there are no nonstandard alternate minimums published. To qualify under alternate minimums an airport must have approved weather reporting. This does not mean a terminal forecast. The published departure procedure gives an obstruction clearance route. You are expected to climb to pattern altitude before turning on course or to the assigned heading. For Part 91 operations, reported ceiling does not make a difference. Only visibility controls.

A technique to avoid vectors around areas like LA Basin, Chicago, or in the North East works well . File IFR from VOR on the other side of these areas to your destination. In remarks section of flight plan indicate time you will pick up IFR plan over VOR. Takeoff VFR fly to VOR and pick up IFR flight plan. You must remain VFR. This avoids all the wasteful vectors ATC gives IFR flights around the dense areas. The more off-hours you fly the more likely you are to get your way instead of ATC's way. If you have reason to believe that being IFR will lead to ATC vector problems. Ask if canceling IFR and proceeding VFR will help.

It is often better to depart VFR and avoid the IFR vectors that take you away from where you want to go. Pick up the IFR clearance once in the air and going the way you want to go.

IFR PTS Changes:
Task D: On circling approach reached MDA and maintains altitude within +100/-0 feet. Circles for normal landing at least 90 degrees for final approach course.

You cannot file IFR at any time unless you are IFR rated
. A non-rated IFR student can, with instructors authorization, file in the instructor's name, for a dual IFR training flight. You cannot file IFR or fly in IFR conditions if you have not flown your 6 approaches, holding patterns and airway tracking within the past year. Only an instrument competency check can overcome this requirement.

Violated while IFR
You must understand and confirm your understanding in IFR communications. Your read back will eliminate 80% of IFR violations. Being in a hurry is the primary cause of oversight failures. Don't do anything you know to be stupid and indefensible.
--Descent to wrong altitude
---Land without clearance
--Fail to follow clearance
--Failing to read back
--Unprepared for approach
--Fail to advise ATC of disorientation
--Proceed beyond clearance limit
--Failure to comply with clearance
--Flying unairworthy aircraft
--Acknowledge ATC but fail to comply
--Communicate with an 'attitude'
--Unsure of where you are going
--Failure to check NOTAMS
--Fly beyond aircraft certifications
--Get inadequate weather briefing
--Turn wrong way contrary to ATC instruction
--Flying with out of currency charts
--Fly through a cloud on a visual approach
--Forget to take flight bag
--Fail to use checklist
--Inadequate preflight
--Fail to confirm or reconfirm assigned altitude
--Fly route always assigned instead of one assigned
--Ducking under one too many times

Airway Clearances
IFR or VFR you have every responsibility to question any ATC clearance that in your opinion hazardous. The possibility of losing your radios is always a legitimate concern. You might reject a route over water. Proximity of a thunderstorm is plenty of reason. FAR 91.3 is the basis you have for rejection of any clearance.

If a pilot who is operating along an airway receives a clearance to operate below the MEA it can be accepted if:
1. If the altitude is no lower than the MOCA and the aircraft is within 22 nautical miles of the applicable fix or navaid.
2. If radar navigational guidance is provided along with lost communications instructions.
3. Do not accept a clearance that is proximate to an obstacle
4. Composite flight plans are combination IFR/VFR. VFR flight MUST be opened with FSS on IFR departure and also closed with FSS on completion.

Effective January 1, 1998 all SIDS and IFR departure procedures are replaced by Instrument Departure Procedures or DPs. Every IFR airport has one or more arrival procedures. Complex DPs will be both charted ;and verbally stated. A DP is a canned method for presenting the pilot with a procedure the provides both separations and traffic flow. One of the difficulties is that there is no guidance about which of any number of DPs to use when ATC fails to assign one. A DP is always given when the obstacle clearance route does not exceed 40:1.

Without an ATC departure restriction you are free to fly direct to your first en route fix once you are above 400'. If no climb requirement is specified than a minimum of 200' per nautical ground mile applies. IFR operations should limit IFR departures to VFR if climb performance cannot exceed 350 per minute. Circle to climb should be done only in VFR and with ATC concurrence.

An ATC assigned climb gradient is mandatory. If a DP requires a turn of more than 15 degrees, the turn must be done after reaching 400' AGL. Some airports have specified early turn requirements as part of the DP. Part 91 pilots are responsible for obstacle clearance. If any part of a Part 91 departure is going to enter controlled airspace the pilot much get an ATC clearance and not level off until the altitude requirement of 91.177(a)(2) are met. ATC assigns the altitude for IFR operations but can be different than required by the hemispheric rule. Special use airspace may be listed at the bottom of the front panel.

FAR 135.217
No takeoff where weather is below IFR landing minimums unless alternate within one hour flight time. Part 91 have neither IFR takeoff minimums or alternate requirement. Suggestion: Fly by PART 135 standards.

Departures require different airspeeds. The angle of bank as shown on the attitude indicator is directly related to the airspeed. Knowing this the proficient instrument pilot is able to adjust elevator, throttle coordination and trim to maintain a constant altitude. You know that as airspeed increases the angle of bank will increase and vice versa. On departures, make a practice of noting rpm and engine sounds as normally exists. This will help you note any malfunctions early.

IFR Charts.
ICAO uses 28 day cycle. U.S. and Canada uses 2 x 28 day cycle. Effective time is 0901 Zulu. Charts only up to 18,000' all airspace Class E above 14,500 is controlled. Time zone boundaries are shown by line of T's on front panel along with time conversion for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

There are four types of IFR charts, high-altitude en route charts or jet charts for above 18000'. Low-altitude enroute charts for flights below 18,000'. Terminal Charts for high density regions. Approach charts for each airport with an IFR procedure or procedures. IFR charts can be handy for VFR pilots since they give distances and radials between VORs Approach charts include airport diagrams as well as NDBs that are otherwise not depicted on VFR charts.

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